Basic English Grammar information – a2zenglishgrammar
1.Subject: The subject is a person or thing performing the action. In other words, subject is the noun, pronoun, or group of words acting as a noun that performs the action indicated in the predicate of the sentence or clause.
2.Predicate: Basically, predicate is the rest of a sentence or clause other than the subject. It usually has a verb, and thus indicates some action, but may have other functions, such as modifying the subject. What is said about the subject is called predicate.
3.Declarative sentence: Declaration is a statement or observation. Narrative and descriptive passages are written using declarative sentences. As:
(a) I did not abuse him.
(b) We warned him.
4.Interrogatives: Questions are interrogative sentences. Grammarians like to use jargon, while telling writers to avoid it, so we have to deal with interrogative sentences. (a) Have you had your lunch? (b) Did you complete your work?
5.Imperatives: Imperative sentences convey commands, requests, advice or emergency pleas; for example:
(a) It is imperative that you leave today.
(b) Go there.
(c) Please, open the door for me.
6.Clause: Clause is such a group of words that forms part of a sentence and contains a subject and a finite verb. A clause contains both a subject and a predicate.
7.Principal clause: An independent clause has a subject and a finite verb. It can stand alone as a sentence. The independent clause is a short sentence.
8.Subordinate clauses: A subordinate clause modifies the sentence by acting as an adjective, adverb, or noun. Usually a dependent clause is introduced by a subordinate conjunction.
9.Phrase: A phrase is a group of words without a subject/verb or complete thought;e.g.-red tapism, ins and outs, hand in gloves etc.
10.Simple sentence: The most basic type of sentence is the simple sentence, which contains only one clause/one finite verb. A simple sentence, contains a subject and a verb (finite), and it expresses a complete thought.
11.Compound sentence: A compound sentence is a sentence formed by two or more independent clauses.
12.Complex sentence: A complex sentence has an independent clause joined by one or more dependent clauses. Unlike a compound sentence, however, a complex sentence contains clauses which are not equal.
13.Parts of speech: Traditional grammar classifies words based on eight parts of speech. These are: verb, the noun, the pronoun, the adjective, the adverb, the preposition, the conjunction, and the interjection. Each part of speech explains not what the word is, but how the word is used. In fact, the same word can be a noun in one sentence and a verb or adjective in the next.
Basic English Grammar
14.Colloquial: Means conversational, informal, every day, casual, familiar, etc.
15.Cognate object: Some verbs take such an object after them that are similar in meaning to the verb. Such objects are called cognate objects. (a) He sighed a deep sigh. (b) Our any fought a fierce fight. In sentences (a) and (b), the verbs and the objects (cognate) are in bold type.
16.Modals: Modal auxiliaries are spec in auxiliary verbs that express the degree of certainty of the action in the sentence, or the attitude or opinion of the writer/speaker concerning the action. These are verbs which help other verbs to express a meaning: it is important to note that ‘modal verbs’ have no meaning by themselves.
17.Non finite: Non-finite verb forms are those that do not show number (they are not singular or plural) or tense (they do not make the sentence past or present.). Non finites are of three kinds:
1. Infinitive, 2.Gerund, 3. Participle.
18.Infinitive: In grammar, the infinitive is the form of a verb that has no inflection to indicate person, number, mood or tense. Infinitives are also defined as ‘to + base” form of the verb.
19.Gerund: Gerund is such a form of verb,that ends in ‘ing’and has the force of a noun and a verb.
20.Participle: A participle is a non-finite verb, called a “verbal adjective,’ which means that it has characteristics of both verbs and adjectives. Since they function as adjectives, participles modify nouns or pronouns. A participle most often ends in -ing’ or -ed’. .
Basic English Grammar
21.Unattached or dangling participle: A participle is a verbal adjective, so it must be attached to some noun or pronoun. It means it must have a proper subject of reference. If the participle is not attached to some noun or pronoun, it is called dangling participle.
22.Inversion : Certain adverbs and adverb phrases, most with a restrictive or negative sense, can for emphasis be placed first in a sentence or clause and are then followed by the inverted (i.e., interrogative) form of the verb. It is called Inversion
23.Synonym: A synonym is a word or expression which means the same as another word or expression. For example: The term ‘industrial democracy’ is often used as a synonym for worker participation’
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